We pride ourselves in hiring the best project managers. The success of any project is dependent on not only having the technical staff designing and programming the robots, but also having top-notch project manager. A project manager for industrial robotics must be capable of leading the team, planning, and strong communication skills. CNC Solutions PM excel at keeping the project on target for time deadlines and within budget.
Industrial Robot Programming Methods
The teach method is the most widely used form of industrial robot programming.
Two other methods are the lead through method and off-line programming.
The primary characteristic of the teach method is the means by which the robot is taught the positional data. The logic for the program is generated either using a menu based system or a text editor. A teach pendant, which is A hand-held device is used to program a robot and control its movements in a number of different co-ordinate systems to the desired locations. The locations are then stored with names that can be used within the robot program.
Coordinates available on a standard jointed arm robot:
- Joint Co-ordinates
- Global Co-ordinates
- Tool Co-ordinates
- Workpiece Co-ordinates
- Lead Through Method
The lead through programming method is primarily used by many paint spraying robots. The robot is programmed by being physically moved through the task by an operator. This is exceedingly difficult where large robots are being used and sometimes a smaller version of the robot is used for this purpose Hesitations and inaccuracies that are introduced into the program cannot be edited out easily without reprogramming the whole task. The robot controller simply records the joint positions at a fixed time interval and then plays this back.
Similar to the way in which CAD systems are being used to generate NC programs for milling machines it is also possible to program robots from CAD data. The CAD models of the components are used along with models of the robots being used and the fixturing required. The program structure is built up in much the same way as for teach programming but intelligent tools are available which allow the CAD data to be used to generate sequences of location and process information. At present there are only a few companies using this technology as it is still in its infancy but its use is increasing each year.
- Reduced down time for programming. Programming tools make programming easier.
- Enables concurrent engineering and reduces product lead time.
- Assists cell design and allows process optimization.
- See below for a list of robotic terms and definitions:
Robot Vocabulary Terms Definition
Algorithm: A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem.
AML A Manufacturing Language: A robot programming language developed by IBM
Axes The plural of axis: An axis is an imaginary straight line or circle used to describe the location or movement of an object in the Cartesian coordinate system.
BASIC The Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code: An early computer programming language that is sometimes used with robots.
C+: A general purpose programming language that is used on robots.
CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing: A computer graphics program that is used to design products.
Cartesian coordinate system: A numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
Cartesian coordinates: A numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
Continuous path control: A type of robot programming that has the manipulator move smoothly without stopping along its path.
Control System: A method of directing the type of path a robot takes.
Controller: The main device that processes information and carries out instructions in a robot. Also known as the processor.
Degrees of freedom: The ability to move in a specific direction. Robots can have up to 6 degrees of freedom.
End-Effector: The end component of a robotic arm that is shaped like a hand or like a specialized tool. Also known as end-of-arm tool (EOAT).
E-stop: A switch that brings a robot to safe, rapid stop. Also called an emergency stop.
FORTRAN Formula Translation: A high-level programming language for robots that is also used for scientific, engineering, and mathematical applications.
Forward Kinematics: The calculating of the position or motion of each robotic link as a function of joint displacements.
Frame: A self-contained group of coordinates that describes both a robot’s position and its orientation.
Industrial Robot: A programmable mechanical device that is used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy.
Inverse Kinematics: The calculating of joint displacements needed to move the end-effector to a desired position and orientation.
Joint: The location at which two or more parts of a robotic arm make contact. Joints allow parts to move in different directions.
Karel: A proprietary robot programming language developed by FANUC Robotics.
Kinematics: The science of motion without regard for the forces that cause that motion. In robotics, kinematics involves studying the mapping of coordinates in motion.
Lead-Through Programming: A programming method in which a robot is placed in “teach mode” while the trainer uses a remote teach pendant to manipulate the robot through the different steps of the job. Also known as teach pendant programming.
Offline Programming: A programming method in which the trainer writes a program and uploads it to the robot.
Online Programming: A programming method that requires the robot to remain ON in order to learn. Also known as teach programming.
Orientation: The alignment of the robot in relation to its position, i.e., up, down, left, right.
Path: The route taken by a robot to travel from one location to another.
Pick and Place: The process of picking up an object or part in one location and placing it in another location. Pick and place robots are popular in production lines.
Point: A precise location in two or three-dimensional space.
Point to Point control: A type of robot programming that has the manipulator reach a set point, stop, complete its task, and then move to the next set point.
Position: A robot’s location in three-dimensional space.
Processor: The main device that processes information and carries out instructions in a robot. Also known as the controller.
Programming arm: A tool used by programmers to physically move the robot through different steps of the job process.
Proprietary language: A programming language that has been developed privately by a manufacturer for its own brand of robots.
ROBOGUIDE: A robot simulator program developed by FANUC Robotics.
Robot Engineer: A person whose job is to design robots, develop new applications for robots, and conduct research into robot capabilities. Robot engineers typically have four years of college education and a graduate degree.
Robot programming: The process of entering information such as velocity and travel time into the robot’s processor.
Sensor: A device that detects the presence or absence of an object, or certain properties of that object, and provides feedback. Sensors allow robots to interact with their environment.
Simulator: A software application that creates a virtual world in which robots can be tested.
Teach pendant: A hand-held device that can be used to program a robot and control its movements.
Teach pendant programming: A programming method in which a robot is placed in “teach mode” while the trainer uses a remote teach pendant to manipulate the robot through the different steps of the job. Also known as lead-through programming.
Teach programming: A programming method that requires the robot to remain ON in order to learn. Also known as online programming.
Tool coordinates: A coordinate system that uses the tool at the end of the robot’s arm as the point of origin.
VAL: A robot programming language developed by Unimate.
Walk-through programming: A programming method in which the trainer physically moves the robot through different steps of the job process.
World coordinates: A coordinate system that uses the robot’s mounting base as a point of origin.
X-axis: The linear axis representing side-to-side movement in a robot.
Y-axis: The linear axis representing back and forth movement in a robot.
Z-axis: The linear axis that represents up and down movement in a robot.